Project group
Work packages

Final report

Geodetic marks appear on the ground in various forms, such as columns, towers, border stones, benchmarks, individual markings on natural and built objects, or even as independent small-sized buildings. Regardless of the age, type and purpose of permanent geodetic marks, they in most cases materialize coordinate systems or land ownership relations in a certain area, which to a considerable extent still exist today, and thus have not only historical value.

Permanent geodetic marks include:

  • the fundamental benchmark in Ruše, the different row benchmarks for height, the geodetic points of the triangulation bases in Radovljica and Maribor, the landmarks of the old provincial borders of Austria-Hungary,
  • triangulation points at the highest Slovenian peaks,
  • old border signs that defined regional or state boundaries and which can still influence on the determination of state borders (especially with Croatia),
  • different border-property points in the land cadastre (different forms of border signs: landmarks, variously marked carved signs in rocks or objects) and
  • geodetic points with educational and tourist potential (e.g. GEOSS – Geometric Center of Slovenia in Slivna pri Vačah), geodetic points with sightseeing towers (e.g. Rašica),
  • there are also stones, natural or concrete, larger or smaller, like trigonometric points of second or lower orders,
  • gravimetric points, the absolute gravimetric points are particularly significant (Castle Socerb, Sevnica Castle, Kluze Fortress, Bogensperk Castle, Church of St. Areh) and others

 The permanent geodetic marks from the period of a classic geodetic survey can in certain cases be used in modern geodetic surveys. Geodesy is one of a few professions that can combine data obtained with current measuring techniques with data obtained in the past by different methods to achieve more accurate results. Decisions made in the present can be more correct and easier, if we know the principles and practical functioning of geodetic science and the profession in the past. Due to the legal protection of real estate and the maintenance of the national coordinate system, the preservation of important old permanent geodetic marks in nature, together with data obtained in the past, is very important. It is also important to identify and evaluate permanent historical geodetic marks in the areas on the border with the Republic of Croatia for the purposes of professional decision-making in demarcation procedures. Last but not least, with good knowledge of these geodetic marks, we can participate in European initiatives to preserve the technical cultural heritage (e.g. in the area of the former Austria-Hungary), some geodetic marks could be included also in the UNESCO World Heritage List.

The project is divided into four working packages:

  •  Work Package 1: Methodological instructions for the inventory, evaluation and use of various permanent geodetic marks in contemporary times
  • Work Package 2: Sources and literature overview on important permanent geodetic marks
  • Work Package 3: Modelling digital collection of important permanent geodetic marks and their properties
  • Work Package 4: Dissemination of project results

The methodology design for inventarisation, evaluation and the use of various important permanent geodetic marks in contemporary times will be followed by a overview of sources and literature on important geodetic marks. In the overview of sources and literature, also interviews with older surveyors will be conducted. Older surveyors who were included in setting up or maintaining important permanent geodetic marks during the classical geodetic survey times. 

The final material result of the project will be a conceptual model of a digital collection of important permanent geodetic marks in which the relevant features of these marks will be described. Methodological instructions will also be prepared to evaluate and use selected permanent geodetic marks in contemporary times, depending on the possibilities of using marks for modern geodetic purposes, their cultural-historical value and tourist potential. The selection of a list of the most important geodetic marks will also be made, which can be considered by the conservators of the Institute for the Protection of Cultural Heritage of the Republic of Slovenia after the end of the project. The proposals of the conservators are the basis for the production of a list of cultural monuments, valued for the proclamation of a cultural monument of national importance, which is the responsibility of the Cultural Heritage Directorate at the Ministry of culture. 

A test case of a digital collection of selected geodetic marks will be created. It will give guidelines on the amount of work, the complexity of the inventarisation and the assessment of the monument’s state for the establishment of a complete digital collection of old geodetic signs in the future. 

The project will be carried out by project partners the Geodetic institute of Slovenije (GI) and the Faculty of Civil and Geodetic Engineering of the University of Ljubljana (UL FGG). GI and UL FGG have a common history of long-time collaboration in development and research projects related to the establishment and realization of the national coordinate system of Slovenia and conceptual, operational tasks related to the use of GNSS technology in practically all areas of geodesy.